Домой Бородавки Бородавки у детей: лечение и профилактика

Бородавки у детей: лечение и профилактика

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Лечение и профилактика бородавок у детей

Бородавки представляют собой маленькие шероховатые образования на коже, которые разрастаются до определенного размера. Вызываются бородавки вирусом папилломы человека различного типа. Данная патология является одной из самых распространенных инфекционных заболеваний кожи в детском возрасте.

Причины появления

Появление бородавки происходит непосредственно во время прямого контакта с носителем этого самого вируса ВПЧ. Заражение может произойти через предметы и места общего пользования (баня, сауна, спортивный зал, бассейн).

На сегодняшний день известно около 100 различных типов вируса папилломы человека. Клинические проявления бородавки характеризуются разной локализацией на теле. Самая частая форма проявления – вульгарная бородавка, которая вызывается 1,2,4 типом вируса.

Очень часто больной может сам себя заразить, распространив инфекцию с области рук в ротовую, перианальную область, на кожу стоп. В случае линейного расположения бородавок, вероятно передача произошла во время расчесывания инфекционной области (феномен Кебнера).

Вирус может находиться в латентном (скрытом состоянии) несколько месяцев, ничем себя не проявляя. Продолжительность инкубационного периода зависит от многих факторов, важную роль в которых играет иммунный статус человека, а также состояние его кожи. Какое-либо повреждение эпителия (микоз, дерматит, гипергидроз) увеличивает в разы проникновения вируса в кожу.

Проявление бородавок на коже

Бородавки простого типа представляют собой своеобразные узелки с бугристой поверхностью, которая, в некоторых случаях, содержит мелкие черные точки.

  • Чаще всего у детей бородавки появляются на коже кистей. На начальном этапе развития на эпителии образуется небольшой узелок розового цвета. Сначала поверхность узелка гладкая, но с ростом бородавки поверхность становится шершавой. Если произошло самозаражения, вокруг основного очага инфицирования появляются мелкие множественные проявления.
  • Околоногтевые бородавки – частая форма простого типа. При данном типе узелки могут сливаться в бляшки, образуя вокруг ногтя шероховатую поверхность. В более запущенных случаях инфекция может разрушить весь ногтевой валик.
  • Подошвенные бородавки – представляют собой узелки или бляшки, поверхность которых имеет шероховатый или гладкий вид. Новообразования располагаются на подошве стопы, а именно в местах максимальной нагрузки. При отсутствии должного лечения бородавка распространяется на большую площадь.
  • Плоские бородавки – узелки гладкой, реже шероховатой поверхности. Размер узелков варьируется 1-3 мм в диаметре. В большинстве случаев образуется в области лица. Но можно встретить на других частях тела.

Диагностировать бородавку на теле очень просто. Но если возникают сомнения, следует обратиться за помощью к врачу-дерматологу.

Лечение

Стандартное общепринятое правило лечения бородавок у детей заключается в следующем: если данное новообразование никаким образом не причиняет дискомфорта малышу, в таком случае терапия не требуется, поскольку чаще всего бородавки самопроизвольно регрессируют.

Однако, при наличии зуда, болезненности, дискомфорта при ходьбе или смущения со стороны ребенка, бородавки подвергаются лечению. Родители должны уяснить, что нет ни одного метода лечения, который абсолютно эффективно избавит от бородавок. Также следует принять к сведению, что лечение может доставить ребенку некоторую болезненность.

Самый частый метод лечения – криодеструкция, а также разрушение бородавки по средством коагулятора. Помимо этого, наружно может использоваться мазь с третиноином.

Профилактика

Рассмотрим ряд профилактических мер, которые уберегут вашего ребенка от случайного заражения вирусом папилломы человека и появления бородавок на коже:

  • регулярное мытье рук;
  • ребенку следует объяснить, что нельзя кусать ногти;
  • систематическое увлажнение кожи;
  • нельзя использовать чужие средства личного пользования (полотенце, бритва, носки и т.д.);
  • родители, а в последствие и дети, должны следить за тем, чтобы руки и ноги не были влажными;
  • вести здоровый образ жизни.

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